Insight into the Infectious Diseases Associated with Celiac Disease: A Guild to Novel Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment

Farzaneh Foroughinia, Ramin Ansari, Maryam Tabarzad


Background :

Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common and chronic immune-mediated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that affects the small intestine. Genetic factors, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and non-HLA genes are major risk factors in CD pathology. Moreover, environmental factors such as infections may affect CD incidence.

Materials and Methods:

The goal of the present study is to investigate the association between CD and viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. Databases including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were searched for relevant literature until 2022.


Several infections have been reported to be associated with CD including reovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, helicobacter pylori, campylobacter jejuni, giardia lamblia, toxoplasma gondii, candida albicans, etc.

Conclusion :

Moreover, antibiotic administration might be a risk factor for further CD development. On the other hand, there are reports regarding the susceptibility of patients with CD to some infections, as well as protective infections against CD. Consequently, more studies are required to explain the two-sided relations between CD and infectious diseases.


Celiac, Infection, Risk factor, Immune-mediated disease, Antibiotics

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