Manganese Intake and Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Golestan Cohort Study

Maryam Hashemian, Hossein Poustchi, Fatemeh Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Maryam Sharafkhah, Akbar Fazeltabar-Malekshah, Azita Hekmatdoost, Reza Malekzadeh



Dietary factors such as intake of minerals may play a role in the etiology of esophageal cancer. Although it has been hypothesized that manganese can affect the risk of some types ofcancer, its role in esophageal cancer is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between intakes of manganese with esophageal cancer in Golestan Cohort Study.

Materials and Methods:

Golestan Cohort Study was launched in Golestan province, northeast Iran, and 50000 participants were enrolled from January 2004 to June 2008. Intake of manganese was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard risks and 95% confidence intervals.


During the follow-up period, we identified 201cases of esophageal cancer according to the reports of pathological evaluations. Manganese intake was not significantly associated with the risk of esophageal cancer (Hazard Ratio (HR) for the top versus bottom quartile = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.91–2.45, p for trend =0.09). HR for 1 mg increase in manganese intake was1.05, (95% CI: 0.98–1.11, p=0.15). Although the graphical Restricted cubic spline (RCS) plots showed that the associations between manganeseand risk of ESCC washyperbolic-shaped, P for non-linear association was not significant (p =0.08).


Manganese intake is not associated with the risk of esophageal cancer in linear pattern.



Esophageal cancer, Minerals, Manganese, Cohort study.

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